Ramadan 2019: All you need to know

Here's everything you need to know about this month

When is Ramadan?
The first day of Ramadan is traditionally marked by the sighting of the crescent moon with the naked eye, and is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. Ebrahim Al Jarwan, General Supervisor at Sharjah Planetarium, said that according to calculations, Ramadan in the UAE is most likely to fall on Monday, May 6. However there is no confirmation yet, so stay tuned.

What is Ramadan all about?
Ramadan is regarded as the best month of the year for Muslims as it was the month in which the Quran was revealed to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) on the night of Laylat Al Qadr, one of the last ten nights of Ramadan.

”The month of Ramadan (is that) in which was revealed the Quran, a guidance for the people and the clear proof for guidance and criterion. So whoever sights (the new moon of) the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and doesn’t intend for you hardship and wants for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that (to) which He has guided you: and perhaps you will be grateful.” (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:185) The annual observance of Ramadan is considered one of the ‘Five Pillars of Islam’.

How long does it last?
Ramadan lasts for one complete moon cycle, which is usually 29 or 30 days. The moon sighting determines the duration. Nowadays, astronomical calculations have started taking precedence over the age-old tradition of moon sighting by the naked eye to determine the dates.

How do we know when it starts?
A moon-sighting committee in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, will make an official announcement.

Why Saudi Arabia?
Makkah is considered the holiest city in Islam. Not only was it the birthplace of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), but also the location where Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) had his first revelation of the Quran. Because of this, the rest of the Islamic world follow Saudi Arabia’s announcement.

How do you greet each other?
Greet people by saying “Ramadan Kareem”. This roughly translates into “Happy Ramadan”. Take the greetings online by using the hashtag #RamadanKareem.

How do Muslims observe Ramadan?
Adult Muslims are required to fast from dawn to dusk every day throughout Ramadan. Those who are ill, elderly, diabetic, pregnant, menstruating, or breastfeeding are not required to fast. Those who travel or are unwell during the period of Ramadan may fast on different days at a later point. Children are not required to fast unless they have reached puberty, although many still do out of choice.

In addition to abstaining from eating, drinking, and smoking, Muslims also refrain from sexual relations as well as sinful speech and behaviour. During Ramadan, Muslims pray every night for 30 days, reciting different chapters each day until the Quran is completed by Eid Al Fitr. This is called the Taraweeh prayer, which is recited after Isha prayers mid-evening.

Why a fast?
Fasting redirects the heart away from distractions, with its purpose being to cleanse the soul by freeing it from impurities. Ramadan is also a time for Muslims to practice self-discipline, sacrifice, and empathy for those less fortunate. It encourages generosity and charity.

When do Muslims break their fast?
Fast may be broken at sunset before Maghrib prayers after ‘Azaan’ (call for prayers). This occurs just after sunset. Dates are traditionally the first food to be eaten each evening. The fast-breaking meal is called Iftar.

When does fasting start?
Each morning before sunrise, Muslims engage in a pre-fast meal called ‘suhour’. Afterwards, they start with the Fajr prayers.

What after Ramadan?
Ramadan ends after 29 or 30 days. Eid Al Fitr is the annual three-day celebration after the last day of Ramadan and it is considered a public holiday period. The government will announce the exact holiday dates nearer the time.

Do non-Muslims have to fast?
No. While Muslims don’t expect non-Muslims to fast as well, it remains important to show respect and follow basic etiquette in daily behaviour.

Basic Ramadan etiquette
Do not eat, drink, or smoke in public during the fasting hours. This includes chewing gum. Do not engage in public displays of affection, like hugging or kissing. Do not engage in any aggressive behaviour. Do not dance or play music in public. You may listen to music quietly with headphones. Do not wear inappropriate clothing in public. Dress respectfully. Men should avoid wearing sleeveless tops, while women should cover their shoulders and knees. Do not swear.

Accept gifts, from a simple date to something more exotic, try to politely accept it. Further, if invited, it would always be an honour to join someone at Iftar. The penalty for not following the above etiquette can vary, with community service normally being favoured.

Where can you eat, drink, or smoke?
If you are not fasting, then you are free to eat and drink in the privacy of your own home, as well as in designated areas. Ask your employer where you can eat your lunch. The same goes with smoking. Some restaurants and cafes will be open during the day. You are free to frequent these. Food can be taken away and consumed in private.

Give to charity
Ramadan is a charitable time, and giving to those less fortunate will be greatly appreciated. It doesn’t have to be money, but perhaps food for Iftar.

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